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Glossary of Aikido Terms

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Common Phrases/Terms

Onegai Shimasu – Will you please teach me (at the beginning of each session)

Domo arigato gozaimashita – Thank you very much (at the end of each session)

Sumi-masen / Gomen-nasai – Please excuse me (as in an apology)

Kudasai – Please

Hajame – Start

Yame – Stop

Atemi – Blow delivered to vulnerable part of body

Bokken – Wooden practise sword

Chudan – Central position

Funekogi – Arm pushing exercise

Gaeshi – To reverse

Gedan – Low position

Hanmi – Posture in which one foot is advanced one step and the body weight is evenly distributed

Hantai – In reverse order

Hidari – Left (direction)

Hiji – Elbow

Irimi – Enter, entering

Jiyu – Free style

Jo – Wooden staff

Jodan – High position

Kaiten – Revolve or rotate

Kata – Shoulder

Katate – One hand

Kiriage-kirisage – Arm raising breath exercise

Kokyu – Breath power, the co-ordination of ki flow with breathing

Koshi – Hip, waist

Migi – Right (direction)

Nage – Throw, the person who throws

O’Sensei – The Great Teacher, Master Morihei Uyeshiba, founder of Aikido

Rei – Bow, salutation

Ryote – Both hands

Seiza – Formal kneeling position with legs folded under the body

Sensei – Teacher, instructor

Shomen – Front, top of head

Tachi – Standing position

Tanto – Knife

Te – Hand

Uchi – Strike

Uke – Person making the attack

Ura – Rear

Ushiro – Back, behind

Waza – Technique

Yokomen – Side of the head

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Numbers

Ichi – One

Ni – Two

San – Three

Shi (or Yon) – Four

Go – Five

Roku – Six

Shichi (or Nana) – Seven

Hachi – Eight

Ku – Nine

Ju – Ten

Ju Ichi – Eleven

Ju Ni – Twelve

Ni Ju – Twenty

Ni Ju Ichi – Twenty one

Ni Ju Ni – Twenty two

San Ju – Thirty

San Ju Ichi – Thirty one

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Training Types/Techniques

Tachi waza – Standing techniques

Suwari waza – Kneeling techniques

Ki-no-nagare – Flowing/continuous practice

Kihon waza – Basic/static training

Kaeshi waza – Counter technique(s)

Jiyu waza – Multiple attack(s)

Hanmi Handachi waza – Uke (attacker) standing and Nage (receiver) kneeling

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Stances

Hidari Kamae – Left foot stance

Migi Kamae – Right foot stance

Ai Hanmi – Same foot forward (when facing uke)

Gyaku Hanmi – Opposite foot forward (when facing uke)

Tenkan Ho – Entering turn

Irimi Tenkan – Stepping entering turn

Irimi Mae – Entering forward

Irimi Ushiro – Entering backward

Hantai Tenkan – Changing direction

Issoku Irimi – Offline entering step

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Attacks and grips

Kata dori – Shoulder grab

Katate dori – Single hand wrist grip

Morote dori – Two-handed grip on one wrist

Mune Tsuki – Straight punch

Ryokata tori – Gripping both shoulders

Ryote dori – Gripping both wrists

Shomen uchi – Vertical strike to the head with hand blade (or a weapon)

Ushiro ryokata tori – Ryokata grip from behind

Ushiro ryote tori  - Ryote-tori grip from behind

Yokomen uchi – Similar to Shomen uchi, but slightly offline and targeting the Nage’s temple

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Katame Waza – Immobilisation

Ikkyo – 1st principle, pinning the arm

Nikkyo – 2nd principle, twisting the wrist towards the attacker

Sankyo – 3rd principle, twisting the wrist with a screwing motion

Yonkyo – 4th principle, pressure on the forearm nerve

Gokyo – 5th principle, gripping the inner side of the wrist

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Nage Waza – Throws

Irimi Nage – Entering throw

Kote Gaeshi – Wrist out-throw

Shiho Nage – ‘Four corner throw’, changing direction

Juji Nage – Throw using the undersurface of Uke’s arm

Kaiten Nage – Rotary or circular throw

Tenchi Nage – ‘Heaven and earth throw’ using extended arms

Juji Garame – Throw using crossed arms

Koshi Nage – Hip throw

Kokyo Nage – ‘Breath throw’

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