5 minutes reading time (969 words)

Glossary of Korean terms

A Summary of Korean Terminology for TaeKwonDo compiled by This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Introduction
This document is an attempt to compile a list of Korean terminology used in the study of TaeKwonDo.  In years past, the terminology used was based upon Chinese.  Since then however, most styles have "upgraded" to use a more "modern" Korean terminology that is more "in sync" with the semantics of the Korean language.  Wherever possible, I have tried to use this "new" (more modern) terminology.  [older terms appear in brackets{}.]

Obviously, the Korean language is not written using the Roman alphabet, so all the spellings you see here are mere approximations and will not necessarily be the same spellings that some of you are used to seeing.

Quick Links:
Stances / Directions / Kicks / Hand Attacks / Blocks / Commands / Body Parts / Sparring / Misc

Counting to 10 in Korean

  1. hanah
  2. dool
  3. set
  4. net
  5. dasot
  6. yosot (pronounced more like "yawsot")
  7. ilgop
  8. yodol (sort of like "yawdol")
  9. ahop
  10. yool (or "yeol" or "yol")

The stress in "hanah", "dasot", and "yosot" is on the first syllable, in "ilgop", "yodol", and "ahop" on the second.  In counting cadence in TaeKwonDo, this is so emphasized that the other syllable frequently almost disappears (e.g., "han", "das", "yos", "lgop", "hop", etc.).

The Korean names for 1st-10th

These are not cardinal numbers (first, second, etc.).  They are another system.  The numbers hanah, dool, etc. are most frequently used when you're talking about something that's counted; il, i, etc. for other things (which usually correspond to cardinal numbers). For example, a first degree black belt would be an "il dan".

These numbers are:

  1. il ("eel")
  2. i ("ee")
  3. sam ("sahm")
  4. sa ("sah")
  5. o ("oh")
  6. ryuk ("yook")
  7. chil
  8. pal
  9. ku
  10. ship

The final 'l' in "chil" and "pal" isn't rounded, like an American 'l' .... it's a much shorter sound, sort of like the initial 'l' in "let", but even shorter.  It's not like the 'l' in "ball".

When pronouncing the word "ship", you MUST NOT emphasize the "sh" sound. It's almost more like "sip" with a sort of a lisp.  If you pronounce it like "sh" in "shell", you will be talking about sexual intercourse.
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Other Korean Terminology

Stances

Sohgi: Stance {Cha See: Stance}
Anjun Sohgi: Sitting Stance
Ap Sohgi: Walking Stance
Ap Kubi: Front Bent Knee Stance
Anjun Sohgi: Sitting Stance
Ap Sohgi: Walking Stance
Ap Kubi: Front Bent Knee Stance {Chungul Chasee: Frong Bent Knee Stance}
Bom Sohgi: Cat Stance
Chagi Sohgi: Kicking Stance
Dwi Kubi: Back Stance {Hugul Chasee: Back Stance}
Juchoom Sohgi: Horse Stance {Keema Chasee: Horse Stance}
Kima Sohgi: Riding Stance
Mot Sohgi: Fighting Stance
Onnoon Sohgi: Sitting Stance
Kibon Junbi Sohgi: Ready Stance
Dong Yuk Sohgi: Dynamic Stance
Cha Yun Sohgi: Natural Stance
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Directions/Motions

Oo: Right
Joa: Left
Ap: Front
An: Inner
Bakkat: Outer
Baro: Reverse
Bitureo: Twisting
Dwi: Back
Gamya: Stepping
Uro: Moving In A Particular Direction (e.g. “Ap Uro Gamya” - Stepping Forward)
Anuro: Inward
Bakuro: Outward
Twim Yah: Jumping
Dollyo: Turning
Dora To: Turn
Dolmyo: Spinning
Mee Kul Myu: Sliding
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Kicks

Chagi: Kick (Or Snap Kick)
Cha Olligi: Stretching Kick
Ap Chagi: Front Kick
Bandal Chagi: 45’ Roundhouse Kick
Pyojuk Chagi: Crescent Kick
Dwi Chagi: Back Kick
Dollyo Chagi: Roundhouse Kick
Bandae Dollyo Chagi: Reverse Round Kick (Hook Kick)
Dwi Dollyo Chagi: Hook Kick (Back Round Kick)
Nakko Chagi: Hooking Kick
Naeryo Chagi: Ax Kick
An Chagi: Inside Ax Kick
Bakkat Chagi: Outside Ax Kick
Yup Chagi: Side Kick
Bitureo Chagi: Twisting Kick
Mireo Chagi: Push Kick
Twio Chagi: Jump Kick {Ea Dan Chagi Jump Kick}
Huryo Chagi: Thrashing Kick
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Hand Attacks

Chirugi: Punch
Chigi: Strike {Kongkyuk: Attack}
Sonnal: Knife-Edge
Joomok: Fist
Doong J Oomuk: Back Fist
Yup Joomuk: Side Fist
Me Joomuk: Hammer Fist
Sanbadak Chigi: Palmhand Strike
Sontong Chigi: Backhand Strike
Sonnal Mok Chigi: Overhead Knife-Edge Strike
Doo Bun Chirugi: Double Punch
Sae Bun Chirugi: Triple Punch
Kwon Su Chirugi: Spearfinger Thrust
Sonkut Chirugi: Finger Thrust
Sewo Chirugi: Vertical Punch
Dollyo Chirugi: RoUnd Punch
Dwijubo Chirugi: Upset Punch
Olliyo Chirugi: Upward Punch
Bandae Chirugi: Front Punch
Baro Chirugi: Reverse Front Punch
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Blocks

Makki: Block
Bakkat Makki: Outer Forearm Block
An Makki: Inner Forearm Block
Hecho Makki: Double Forearm Block
Anuro Makki: Inward Block
Bakuro Makki: Outward Block
Arae Makki: Low Block
Gutjha Makki: Nine-Shaped Block
Daebi Makki: Guarding Block
Cho Kyo Makki: Rising Block
Olgul Makki: High Block
Momtong Makki: Middle Block
Sonnal Makki: Knife-Edge Block
Wesanteul Makki: Mountain Block
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Commands

Charrot: Attention
Junbi: Ready
Dorah: About Face
Elosoh: Stand
Keuman: Stop
Gooky A Hyanghayoh: Face the Flag
Hai San: Class Dismissed
Jonglee: Line Up
Kyenyae: Bow
Anja: Sit
Pah Ro: Return To Ready Position
Pal Bah Kwah: Switch Your Stance (Switch Sides)
Koo Ryung Op See: In Your Own Time
Seijak: Begin
Shiuh: Relax
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Body Parts

Arae: Lower Body (Low Section) {Ha Dan: Lower Body}
Bahl: Feet
Dahlee: Leg
Eep: Mouth
Palkup: Elbow
Gi: Ear
Joomok: Fist
Ko: Nose
Mok: Neck
Molee: Head
Momtong: Middle Body (Middle Section) {Choong Dan: Middle Body}
Mooloop: Knee
Myung Chi: Solar Plexus
Noon: Eye
Ouka: Shoulder
Pahl: Arm
Palmak: Forearm
Sonn: Hand
Olgul: Face and Head High {San Dan: Face and Head High}
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Sparring

Kyorugi: (Free) Sparring {Daeryun: : Sparring}
Hanbeon Kyorugi: One Step Sparring {Il Sooshik Daeryun: One Step Sparring}
Doobeon Kyorugi: Two Step Sparring {Yi Sooshik Dayryun: Two Step Sparring}
Sebeon Kyorugi: Three Step Sparring {Sahm Sooshik Daeruyn Three Step Sparring}
Anja Kyorugi Sitting: Position Sparring
Tzalbeun-Khal Kyorugi: Knife Sparringk
Ban Ja Yu Kyorugi: Semi Free Sparring
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Miscellaneous

Danjang: Fix
Dhee: Belt
Dobok: Uniform
Dojang: School (House Of Discipline)
Gup: Grade
Dan: Degree
Jang: A Page (Similar to a Page)
Joncha: Every One
Kihap: Yell
Kahm Sa Ham Nee Da: Thank You
Jer Maenyo: (You’re) Welcome
Mukyum: Meditation
Onyonghe: AsayoHello
Onyonghe Gasayo: Goodbye
Pil Sung: Certain Victory
Poomsae: Form (pronounced “Poom-Say”)
Hyung: Form
Sah Bum Nim: Master (or Senior Instructor)
Jung Sin Yuk: Mental Strength (Martial Art Spirit)
Yung Suk: Combination
Tai Geuk Gi: The Korean Flag
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Quick Links:
Stances / Directions / Kicks / Hand Attacks / Blocks / Commands / Body Parts / Sparring / Misc

 

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